Concussions and Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) result from any injury to the head that causes a change in consciousness, however brief. Traumatic brain injury happens in a lot of contact sports.  Common examples of causes of TBI include car accidents, sports collisions or accidents, and falls.


The importance of early assessments 

Testing for traumatic brain injuries promptly is critical in being able to obtain the necessary help to mitigate any damage suffered.  Damage to the brain causes changes in abilities such as:


  • attentiontraumatic brain injury after heading in soccer

  • memory

  • judgment

  • perception

  • speech

  • emotion


It is vitally important to note that these changes may be severe and quite noticeable, or they may be subtle and noticed only by the injured individual.


Other symptoms of TBI can include:


  • disorientation,football player after brain concussion.

  • confusion,

  • headache,

  • fatigue,

  • slurred speech or word-finding problems,

  • changes in hearing or vision.


These changes can impact an individual’s ability to work or succeed in school and can have a profound impact on his or her relationships with others.




TBI can occur without physical injury


TBI occurs along with physical injury in some cases, but in other Traumatic brain injury from ski accidentcases, it may be the only injury resulting from the accident or fall.



The importance of neuropsychological assessments in combination with brain imaging


CT scan of a skull traumatic brain injury

Brain imaging such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is initially used in the emergency room or by your physician to rule out a life-threatening brain injury.  Also, they help in observing structural changes or abnormalities.


Neuropsychological assessments look at the functioning of the brain in regards to how the individual is processing information.


In other words, there could easily be no structural changes or abnormalities as a result of the BI, but there could be issues related to the way the brain processes information that can be a concern.




The offices of Ginny Estupinian Ph.D.  can assist you in:


  • documenting cognitive and emotional strengths and weaknesses

  • diagnosis and prognosis

  • treatment recommendations


Your next step


The first step is to obtain a thorough neuropsychological assessment to fully understand the impact of a TBI in you or your loved one.


Once the data is gathered and analyzed a discussion outlining the results and various treatment options will be presented to you. Often, with your permission, we coordinate our findings with your physician to give you the most comprehensive understanding of where you are in regards to any TBI.



Please call our office for more information