What is Neurofeedback?

Neurofeedback is a unique drugless approach to addressing brainwave imbalance.  Neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback that utilizes real-time displays of brain activity called electroencephalography (EEG)  and guided exercise for the brain.   This is a learning modality designed to retrain dysregulated brainwave patterns.


The goal of neurofeedback is to transform a dysregulated brainwave imbalance into a more regulated and organized pattern.


This utterly noninvasive procedure is considered safe by the Food and Drug Administration.


Neurofeedback — also known as EEG Biofeedback — is reflective of this approach and has a history that goes back at least 30 years.


It involves providing individuals with real-time feedback on their brainwave activity so that they may learn to alter their typical EEG pattern to one that is consistent with a focused and attentive state.


What conditions does Neurofeedback help with?

Several published scientific research studies have demonstrated neurofeedback’s efficacy in managing many neurological conditions such as


  • ADHD

  • Anxiety

  • Panic attacks

  • Migraine and tension headaches

  • Insomnia

  • Chronic pain

  • Post-stroke syndrome

How do the brainwaves in my brain operate?


                                                There are four distinct brainwaves.

                                                They are:


picture of neurofeedback waves traveling through scull into the brain

BETA waves occur when you are alert and externally focused.


ALPHA waves occur when you close your eyes and relax.


THETA waves occur briefly when you start to fall asleep.


 DELTA waves occur when you are sleeping.





An imbalance in brainwaves can manifest in various symptoms depending on what brainwave(s) are out of sync.

When there is a Delta/Theta imbalance, there can be symptoms such as:


Woman with migraine due to anxiety Nuerofeedback can help

When an Alpha imbalance is present, the following symptoms can be present:


Neurofeedback can help with ADHD as shown in this graphic

  • Depression

  • Victim Mentality

  • Excessive self-concern

  • Passive Aggressiveness

  • Irritability

  • Avoidance Behavior

  • Rumination

  • Anger

  • Self-Depreciation

  • Agitation

  • Withdrawn Behavior

When a Beta imbalance is present symptoms such as these can occur:


Neurofeedback can help mood issues as shown in this picturedepression

  • Anxiety

  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

  • Migraine

  • Tension Headaches

  • Insomnia

  • Obsessive Thinking

  • Excessive Rationalization

  • Poor Emotional Awareness

  • Panic Attacks

  • Worry

  • Chronic Pain

  • Hyper-Vigilant

  • Restless

Scientific research has shown that for any of these given circumstances, there are expected ranges of brainwaves and activity.


However, when the nervous system becomes tense and unbalanced as a result of such things as trauma, poor nutrition, drugs/medications, food sensitivities, chemical toxicities, and life stress, the relevant brainwave patterns can become dysregulated and present as one or many of the different neurological conditions.



Current research has demonstrated that the brain can reorder itself and learn adaptive patterns at any age.  This means brain patterns and function can improve.

Neurofeedback changes brainwave imbalance and brain pathways, thereby producing healthier brainwave patterns that enhance function.

The first step in starting Neurofeedback

All neurofeedback begins with a Quantitative Electroencephalogram (QEEG) EEG cap used for neurofeedbackevaluation.

The QEEG is an assessment tool designed to objectively analyze, evaluate, and record the patient’s brainwave patterns.


The process involves placing a cape embedded with  12 small sensors that measure and record brainwave activity. These sensors do not transmit an electrical current into the brain. They only record the signals coming from the client’s brain.


The QEEG Report

Photo of Neurofeedback Brain MapThe data obtained are statistically compared to an extensive normative database, and a report is generated.


This procedure allows your clinician to determine whether there are any imbalances present.


From the analyzes of the QEED report, a training protocol will be established.




The training session procedure

The Neurofeedback training session is conducted in a comfortable and safe, child with adhd neurofeedback training at Dr. Ginny Phdentertaining environment. Clients connect to a computer using sensors that allow the computer to record their brainwave activity.


These sensors are noninvasive and painless.


The sensors receive the brainwaves emitted by the brain and transmit the information to the computer for amplification and recording.


Your psychologist will then monitor the data in real time on their monitor.


Next, the client will choose a training media such as a game, movie, TV show, music, or musical tones.


The proprietary software will then facilitate the training media to signal the patient when the brainwaves are optimum.


In other words, the client is controlling the training media with their brain, and in this way, the brain learns how to regulate itself.


Therefore, the more those neuropathways are driven and used, the more neuroplasticity takes place, and with this new learned skilled, the client can incorporate it into their everyday life.

Frequently Asked Questions about Neurofeedback


How long does a neurofeedback treatment session last, and how many treatment sessions are needed?

A typical neurofeedback treatment session lasts about 30 minutes, and most patients usually require between 20 to 40 sessions.  However, it is essential to keep in mind that this is only a range, and only after a client is individually assessed can a treatment program be determined.


How long before I can experience results from neurofeedback training?

Most patients begin to show a response to neurofeedback treatments within the first 4-8 sessions with continued improvement resulting from the brain developing and reinforcing new pathways as well as learning new responses throughout their care.


How long will the effects of neurofeedback last?

In some follow-up studies that looked at this question, it was found that in some cases, the benefits can last decades.  Some clients who have used neurofeedback to improve their peak performance decide to continue with neurofeedback sessions after they have resolved their initial symptoms.


Does your office accept insurance for neurofeedback?

No, the offices of Ginny Estupinian Ph.D does not accept insurance.  Payment for services must be made at the time services are rendered.  For individuals with a PPO health insurance plan, there may be some form of reimbursement depending on your coverage level.  However, it is very important that you first check with your carrier to determine what is covered and applicable deductions.

Your Next Step

You are cordially invited to call the offices of Ginny Estupinian Ph.D. to see if you or your loved one would be a good candidate for neurofeedback.  Like any treatment, it is not applicable to all persons and the treatment modality must be first evaluated to see if it is a potentially good fit for the client.


Call our office today and discover the benefits of neurofeedback for yourself



Some of the Research studies on the efficacy of neurofeedback

ANS Foundation Van der Kolk (91)     1/1/09-12/31/12    A pilot study examining the impact of neurofeedback on adults and adolescents with chronic post-trauma dysregulation.

Gapen, M., van der Kolk, B. A., Hamlin, E., Hirshberg, L., Suvak, M., & Spinazzola, J. (2016). A pilot study of neurofeedback for chronic PTSD. Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback41(3), 251-261.

Mark P. Jensen, Caroline Grierson, Veronika Tracy-Smith, Stacy C. Bacigalupi MA, Siegfried Othmer. (2008) Neurofeedback Treatment for Pain Associated with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I, Pages 45-53 Journal of Neurotherapy Investigations in Neuromodulation, Neurofeedback, and Applied Neuroscience

Moriyama, T. S., Polanczyk, G., Caye, A., Banaschewski, T., Brandeis, D., & Rohde, L. A. (2012). Evidence-based information on the clinical use of neurofeedback for ADHD. Neurotherapeutics: the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, 9(3), 588–598.

Nestoriuc, Y., Martin, A., Rief, W. et al. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback (2008) 33: 125. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10484-008-9060-3

Nicholson, A. A., Ros, T., Frewen, P. A., Densmore, M., Théberge, J., Kluetsch, R. C., … Lanius, R. A., (2016). Alpha oscillation neurofeedback modulates amygdala complex connectivity and arousal in posttraumatic stress disorder. NeuroImage. Clinical, 12, 506–516.

Sokhadze, E. M., El-Baz, A. S., Tasman, A., Sears, L. L., Wang, Y., Lamina, E. V., & Casanova, M. F. (2014). Neuromodulation integrating rTMS and neurofeedback for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder: an exploratory study. Applied Psychophysiology and biofeedback, 39(3-4), 237–257.

Stokes, D. A, Lappin, M.S. Neurofeedback and biofeedback with 37 migraineurs: a clinical outcome study (2010) Behavioral and Brain Functions 6:9

Surmeli, T., & Ertem, A., (2009). QEEG Guided Neurofeedback Therapy in Personality Disorders: 13 Case Studies. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 40(1), 5–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/155005940904000107

Young, K. D., Zotev, V., Phillips, R., Misaki, M., Yuan, H., Drevets, W. C., & Bodurka, J. (2014). Real-time fMRI neurofeedback training of amygdala activity in patients with major depressive disorder. PloS one, 9(2), e88785

van der Kolk, B. A., Hodgdon, H., Gapen, M., Musicaro, R., Suvak, M. K., Hamlin, E., & Spinazzola, J. (2016). A Randomized Controlled Study of Neurofeedback for Chronic PTSD. PloS one11(12), e0166752. (2017 Award for outstanding contribution to science, Foundation for Neurofeedback & Applied Neuroscience)